November 15 is the birth anniversary of tribal leader Birsa Munda who became part of the tribal movement against the British that started in the 1870s on the Chota Nagpur plateau.
Born in 1875, Munda became heavily involved in the movement around 1890. He was arrested by the British and died in a prison in Ranchi aged 25 in 1900.
This year, President Draupadi Murmu is due to participate in the State Foundation Day celebrations at Morhabadi field and also visit Munda’s birthplace in Ulihatu village in Khunti district.
As the state celebrates its formation day, here’s everything you need to know about it.
Jharkhand is located in the land part of India. It is bordered by the states of Bihar to the north, West Bengal to the east, Odisha to the south, Chhattisgarh to the west and Uttar Pradesh to the northwest. Its capital is Ranchi.
Jharkhand is India’s 15th largest state by area and 14th by population.
Jharkhand’s statehood was the culmination of a long struggle fought mainly by Adivasis and Scheduled Tribes.
Independence from India brought relatively few socio-economic benefits to the people of the Jharkhand region, leading to widespread dissatisfaction with the administration of Bihar, especially among the tribal peoples .
The journey to statehood began in 1912, when it was first proposed by a student at St. Columbia College in Hazaribagh.
Then, in 1928, the Unnati samaj political wing of the Association of Christian Tribes demanded a tribal state in eastern India, after which a memorandum was submitted to Simon’s commission.
In 1955, the Jharkhand party led by Jaipal Singh Munda submitted a memorandum to the States Reorganization Commission for a separate state of Jharkhand. However, it was rejected.
The tribal groups that led the call for independence from Bihar became militant in their demand in the 1980s. In the 1990s, the separation movement spread to non-tribal communities, eventually precipitating the establishment of a new state.
In 1998, the then union government decided to send the bill regarding the formation of the state of Jharkhand to the Legislative Assembly of Bihar, to which the leader of the Rashrtya Janta Dal (RJD) , Lalu Prasad Yadav, said the state would be divided over his dead body.
Finally, with the support of the RJD and the Congress, the ruling coalition in the center led by the Bharatiya Janata party, which made the state its main pole plank in the region in successive poles earlier, approved the project. Organization Bill of Bihar during monsoon session of Parliament. that year, paving the way for the creation of a separate state of Jharkhand.
Jharkhand’s climate varies from humid subtropical in the north to tropical humid and dry in the southeast.
There are three well defined seasons in Jharkhand. The cold season, from November to February, is the most pleasant part of the year.
The southwest monsoon, from mid-June to October, brings nearly all of the state’s annual rainfall.
According to the 2011 Indian census, Jharkhand has a population of 32.96 million. The Santhal, Oraon (Kurukh), Munda, Kharia and Ho are the main indigenous groups and together they make up the vast majority of the total tribal population.
Hindi is the official language of Jharkhand and is spoken by the people of the state, although different regions have their own languages. These include Nagpuri, Khortha, Kurmali, Magahi and Bhojpuri.
There are 67% Hindus and 15% Muslims according to the 2011 census.
Jharkhand has had a tumultuous political history. He had 11 chief ministers in 22 years. Among these, Raghubar Das of the BJP is the only CM to have completed a full five-year term from 2014 to 2019. Sitting CM Hemant Soren is the second longest CM in state history.
Since attaining statehood, the government of Jharkhand has pursued an active course of economic planning and development. Information technologies, transport and infrastructure, agriculture and local crafts are among the priority sectors.
Jharkhand’s gross domestic product is estimated at ₹3.83 lakh crore (US$48 billion) in 2020-2021. The GDP per capita of Jharkhand in 2018-2019 was ₹82,430 (US$1,000).
Jharkhand also has immense mineral resources: minerals ranging from (rank in the country in brackets) to iron ore (4th), coal (3rd), copper ore (1st), mica (1st), bauxite (3rd), etc.
The Chota Nagpur Plateau is India’s richest mineral belt, and it is responsible for a significant share (in value) of the country’s mineral yield. Jharkhand produces almost all of the country’s copper, kyanite (used in the manufacture of heat-resistant porcelain), pyrite (used to manufacture sulfuric acid) and phosphate, as well as a large part from the production of bauxite (a source of aluminium), mica, kaolin and other clays, and iron ore.
The state is known for its waterfalls, hills and holy sites; Baidyanath Dham, Parasnath, Dewri and Rajrappa are major religious sites. Itkhori is a holy place for Hindus, Buddhists and Jains. It is believed to be the place from which Gautama Buddha started his journey for Bodh Gaya.
Apart from this, there are several wildlife sanctuaries in Jharkhand including Betla National Park and Dalma Wildlife Sanctuary which are major attractions for tourists.